ISSN 2305-6894

Clove extract as a novel green inhibitor of calcium carbonate scales: morphological and adsorption studies

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1 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, NIOF, Qaitbay, P.O. Box: 22758, Egypt
2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 426, 21321 Alexandria, Egypt
3 Water Company, Holding Company of Water & Wastewater, P.O. Box: 21511, Alexandria, Egypt
4 Department of Materials Science, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, P.O. Box 832, Alexandria, Egypt

Abstract: Recently, green chemistry research has focused on the importance of protecting the environment by avoiding the use of harmful chemicals. Electrochemical measurements, conductivity tests, and microscopic examination were used to evaluate Clove extract as a green antiscalant. It was found that at 100 ppm, the extract suppresses calcium carbonate precipitation by 80.4±1.75%. The effect of temperature on the antiscaling performance of the extract was investigated. The results revealed the antiscalant characteristics of Clove extract even at 70°C, which is considered as accelerated condition for CaCO3 formation. Also, the adsorption properties of the scale inhibitor were investigated using adsorption isotherms. The experimental data gave good fitting to Temkin and Kinetic-thermodynamics adsorption models. The inhibitory effect of the extract is mainly attributed to the adsorption of phytochemicals extracted from Clove buds on the metal surface which hinder the attachment of scale crystals. FTIR data displayed the presence of many functional groups such as carbonyl and hydroxyl groups in extracted phytochemicals which act as chelating sites and restrict the formation of scale crystals. Moreover, SEM and XRD findings were used to validate the obtained results which confirmed the modification of scale crystals that caused by coordination of extract molecules and crystal growth site.

Keywords: clove extract, green scale inhibitor, SEM, XRD, adsorption isotherms

Int. J. Corros. Scale Inhib., , 11, no. 2, 606-620
doi: 10.17675/2305-6894-2022-11-2-10

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